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Understanding the Different Types of Land Deeds (Chanote) in Thailand

When it comes to purchasing or leasing land in Thailand, understanding the different types of land deeds, commonly referred to as "Chanote," is crucial. Each type of deed comes with its own set of rights and restrictions, which can significantly impact your ability to use, sell, or develop the land. In this blog post, we'll explore the main types of land deeds in Thailand to help you make informed decisions.

Title deeds In Thailand (Chanote)


The Chanote, or Nor Sor 4 Jor, is the gold standard of land ownership in Thailand. It represents full ownership of the land and offers the highest level of security.

Key Features

  • Full Ownership: As the holder, you have complete ownership rights, allowing you to sell, lease, or use the land as collateral.

  • Precise Boundaries: The land is accurately surveyed and marked with unique numbered posts, ensuring clear and undisputed boundaries.

  • Easy Transfer: The land can be easily transferred, sold, or mortgaged, making it the most flexible and secure type of deed.

Ideal For

  • Investors and developers looking for maximum security and clarity in land ownership.

  • Individuals seeking the most reliable form of land tenure.

Nor Sor 3 Gor (Confirmed Certificate of Use)


The Nor Sor 3 Gor offers secure land tenure but does not grant full ownership like the Chanote. It is a recognized and reliable type of deed.

Key Features

  • Surveyed Land: The land is surveyed and boundaries are marked, though not as precisely as with a Chanote.

  • Potential for Upgrade: This deed can be upgraded to a Chanote, enhancing its value and security.

  • Transferable: While the process is more complex than with a Chanote, the land can still be sold, leased, or used as collateral.

Ideal For

  • Buyers who want a secure form of land tenure with the potential to upgrade to a Chanote.

  • Individuals comfortable with a slightly less secure, yet reliable, form of land deed.

Nor Sor 3 (Certificate of Use)


The Nor Sor 3 is a certificate of use, indicating the right to use the land without granting full ownership. It is less secure than the Nor Sor 3 Gor and Chanote.

Key Features

  • Less Precise Survey: The land is measured, but the survey may not be precise, which could lead to boundary disputes.

  • Upgradable: It can be upgraded to Nor Sor 3 Gor or Chanote after a more thorough survey.

  • Transferable: The land can be sold or leased, though the process is more cumbersome compared to the higher-level deeds.

Ideal For

  • Those willing to accept more ambiguity in land boundaries and tenure.

  • Buyers planning to upgrade the land deed in the future for greater security.

Sor Kor 1 (Certificate of Possession)


The Sor Kor 1 is a certificate acknowledging possession of the land, offering the least secure form of land tenure.

Key Features

  • Right of Possession: Indicates the right to possess and use the land but not to own it.

  • No Precise Survey: Boundaries are approximate, leading to potential disputes.

  • Complex Transfer Process: Transferring this type of land is complex and less straightforward.

Ideal For

  • Long-term residents of rural areas who have traditionally used the land.

  • Those with limited options looking to establish a base for upgrading the deed in the future.

Por Bor Tor 5 (Tax Receipt)


The Por Bor Tor 5 is not a title deed but a tax receipt showing that the holder has paid taxes on the land. It offers no legal rights to the land itself.

Key Features

  • Proof of Tax Payment: Serves as evidence of tax payment on the land.

  • No Ownership Rights: Does not grant any ownership or usage rights.

  • Potential for Upgrading: Long-term holders might upgrade to a more secure deed over time.

Ideal For

  • Locals in rural areas who have been paying taxes on the land for generations.

  • Those looking to start the process of securing more formal land tenure.


Navigating the complexities of land ownership in Thailand can be challenging, but understanding the different types of land deeds is a critical first step. Each type of deed offers varying levels of security and rights, so it's important to choose the one that best suits your needs and plans for the land. Always consult with a local legal expert to ensure you fully understand the implications of each deed type before making a land transaction. By doing so, you can make informed decisions and successfully manage your land ownership journey in Thailand.

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